Category Archives: Pre-Lent

Christian Traditions 012: Shrovetide and Quinquagesima Sunday

Von Trapp Follow-Along: As described in detail in a previous blog post, Maria discusses this period at length under “CARNIVAL.”

14-17 February 2015WHEN IS IT?

Quinquagesima Sunday is the first Sunday before Ash Wednesday, occurring 50 days before Easter. This year, that’s 15 February. Because Ash Wednesday is a moveable feast (it’s based on the date of Easter, which is based roughly on the Spring Equinox, and so Easter and, by extension, Ash Wednesday move to a different date every year), Quinquagesima is also a moveable feast. The earliest it may occur is 1 February and the latest it can occur is 7 March. Shrovetide, which is the Saturday before to the Tuesday after Quinquagesima Sunday, will occur 14 February to 17 February.

Frans_Hals,_Merrymakers_at_Shrovetide_(c._1616–1617)WHAT IS IT?

“Shrove” comes from “shrive,” which refers to the confession of sins practiced on the day before Lent.

Shrovetide refers to the period encompassing the last four days before Ash Wednesday. The last day before Lent, Shrove Tuesday, is so named because one of the three primary purposes of Lent is penance, and so the day before Lent starts became the day on which people confessed their sins in preparation for the penance of Lent. The word “shrove” comes from “shrive,” which means (1) to present oneself to a priest for confession, penance, and absolution, or (2) to hear the confession of, assign penance to, and absolve someone.

As discussed in a previous post, during Lent, people were not allowed to eat animal products, such as meat (including poultry and fish), eggs, and dairy products (though today, the only prohibition is meat). Therefore, Pre-Lent and Carnival, the entire period of 17 days before Ash Wednesday, became a time of celebration before the solemnity of Lent. Furthermore, the last few days before Ash Wednesday (the first day of Lent) developed into a time when people hurriedly attempted to empty their kitchens and pantries of the forbidden food since otherwise it would spoil in the following 50 days of Lent. Over time, traditions arose for each day of Shrovetide.

Shrove Saturday (so named because it is the last Saturday before Shrove Tuesday) is also known as Egg Saturday or Egg Feast Day because students and children were traditionally given pasch (pronounced pask) eggs (often limed or pickled) on this day. They are basically Easter eggs, a symbol of Christ’s resurrection, and are generally dyed or painted. Often, the creator would write a name on it in grease because the grease does not absorb the dye, and so after dying, the egg appears to have a name on it.

quinquagesimaQuinquagesima Sunday is so named because it occurs 50 days before Easter (if you include both Easter Sunday and Quinquagesima Sunday in the counting).  It is also known as Shrove Sunday because it’s the last Sunday before Shrove Tuesday. It’s also named Estomihi from the beginning of the liturgy before the Eucharist or Lord’s Supper performed on that day, which reads “Esto mihi in Deum protectorem…” This was usually the day on which the coming festivities were discussed and planned.

Shrove Monday (so named because it is the last Monday before Shrove Tuesday) is also known as Collop Monday because this is the day on which people would eat collops of bacon (a “collop” is a chunk or slice of meat or fat) with eggs. The fat drained and collected from the collops were the source of fat for the next day’s traditional meal. Children from poor families would take this day to go begging for food, called “Shroving” or “Gooding.”

Shrove Tuesday, the last day before Lent, is also known as “Fat Tuesday” in English (or, in the original French, “Mardi Gras”) because it is the day on which all remaining animal products, especially fats and cream, must be used up. It was also known as Pancake Day, for the traditional food to eat on that day. As Maria Von Trapp explains, pancakes probably became the traditional food for Shrove Tuesday because it’s a recipe that requires butter, milk, and eggs. Any remaining fat and eggs were usually used to make the pancakes for this day. On Shrove Tuesday, the church would ring the Pancake Bell in the evening to tell people that it was time (1) to come to church for the shriving, (2) to stop work for the day, and (3) to start making pancakes. After church was when the fun began.

As also discussed in the previous post about Pre-Lent and Carnival, Shrovetide and especially Shrove Tuesday, being the last day on which animal products could be eaten, was a time for feasting. Along with feasting came games, sports, dancing, singing, and any other revelry prior to the solemnity of Lent, during which such frivolity was not permitted. Some of the traditional games included pancake racing, various now illegal animal games (such as bear baiting, cock fighting, and cock throwing—see Footnote 1), football (meaning soccer, or games vaguely similar to soccer but with few if any rules and with most of the city’s population taking part), and mass skipping (that is, playing jump rope). We believe mass skipping developed sometime in the 1800s, with the first recorded event taking place in 1903.

What are pancake races? The legend says that a housewife in 1448 heard the Pancake Bell ringing and, fearing that she would be late for the shriving service, ran to church with her skillet still in hand and wearing her apron. Now, women of a certain age (for example, any woman over 16 in the Olney Race) run a race of 415 yards wearing cap and apron and are required to toss the pancake at least three times on the route. The winner receives a kiss from the Pancake Bell Ringer and a prayer book from the vicar. The pancake race is most popularly copied in Liberal, Kansas (U.S.).

Another pancake game that developed over time in schools was the “Westminster Greeze” (obviously originating at Westminster), where the school cook would toss a pancake over a 16-foot beam and the boys would scramble to grab a piece of it. The boy with the biggest piece was given a guinea as a prize.

(On a side note, Mardi Gras carnivals of France were a tradition brought with French colonists to the south of the U.S., which is why the Mardi Gras event held in New Orleans every year is the most famous one in America and one of the most famous around the world. The New Orleans Mardi Gras event was originally formulated with both European Christian traditions and African traditions brought or inherited by African American slaves. Today, there’s very little if anything Christian about it and it’s generally no longer a family-friendly event.)

calendarLOOKING AHEAD

In some churches, this date is known as Transfiguration Sunday and commemorates the Transfiguration of Jesus. However, there is also a Feast of the Transfiguration in August. That is when I have chosen to commemorate the Transfiguration, partly because the first few months of the year are packed with Christian observances but the late summer looks comparatively empty. 🙂

CALENDAR OF EVENTS

  • 14 February: Shrove Saturday or Egg Saturday
  • 15 February: Shrove Sunday or Quinquagesima Sunday
  • 16 February: Shrove Monday or Collops Monday
  • 17 February: Shrove Tuesday or Pancake Day or Fat Tuesday (Mardi Gras)

STANDARD ACTIVITIES

Like with Sexagesima, there are very few traditional activities for Quinquagesima Sunday itself. However, as described above, there are MANY traditions for the entirety of Shrovetide. Try to incorporate at least a few of those described below.

Shrove Saturday (Egg Saturday):

  • Food. Make Pasch Eggs (Easter Eggs). Traditionally, they were limed (read about it here) or pickled eggs (read about it here). Honestly, neither sounds appetizing to me, so I plan to simply boil the eggs and dye the shells. Write a name on the egg with wax or grease (you may write various names of God or, if in a family, you may write each child’s name), and then dip it in the dye.

Shrove Sunday (Quinquagesima):

  • Reading. I Corinthians 13, Luke 18:31-34
  • Prayer. Pray the following or use it to guide your own prayer.
    • “O LORD, Who has taught us that all our doings without charity are nothing worth: Send Your Holy Spirit, and pour into our hearts that most excellent gift of charity, the very bond of peace and of all virtues, without which whoever lives is counted dead before Your: Grant this for Your only Son Jesus Christ’s sake.  ”

Shrove Monday (Collops Monday):

  • Food. Make collops. Recall from the reading above that this simply constitutes bacon and eggs.
  • Shroving or Gooding. This was kind of similar to trick-or-treating, but not for candy—it constituted poor children begging for food. Consider adopting a trick-or-treat kind of practice at your church (your kids will love the fact that they get to trick-or-treat twice a year while all the other kids only get to do it once a year—in fact, it might draw kids to your church). If your church has many rooms (such as churches of denominations that practice Sunday School), you could even make it very elaborate by having a different kind of candy or food behind each door and have adults behind the doors to hand them out. Heck, you could go all out and give the children entire meals by having them go around with plates and allowing them to randomly select a certain number of doors and see what they get for their meals. As long as most of the foods are kid-friendly, the children might quite enjoy this! “I got a pig-in-a-blanket, mac & cheese, a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, a plum, and an orange!” “I got a grilled cheese sandwich, a mini hot dog, green bean casserole, a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, and applesauce!” The options are endless. Check out Pinterest for ideas.

Shrove Tuesday (Fat Tuesday or Pancake Day):

  • Food. Make pancakes. Traditionally, these were eaten in the evening, but consider that you’ll be eating lots of other food in the evening and consider having pancakes for breakfast instead.
  • Party! Maria Von Trapp explains that you can do this partying with family or a church group. Her recommendation is that the entire parish/church take part—but, of course, this was in the day before the advent of “megachurches.” Traditionally, you enjoy games, dancing, and singing with lots of food that is incredibly bad for you (and forbidden beginning at midnight) and party until the clock strikes midnight. At that point, the entire group stops singing, dancing, and playing mid-dance, mid-song, and mid-game. All kneel down and pray the Lord’s Prayer, and then stand up and say to each other, “I wish you a blessed season of Lent,” and then go home.
    • Songs. See Footnote 2 for lyrics and tunes.
    • Games. Obviously, you can’t do the animal games traditionally associated with Shrove Tuesday, unless you enjoy being cruel to animals and they’re somehow not yet illegal in your location. But you can use any typical party games or add in some traditional Shrove Tuesday games: football, pancake race, pancake toss, mass skipping (jump rope)…
    • Dances. I couldn’t find evidence of any traditional Shrove Tuesday dances, but dancing in general is very much associated with Shrove Tuesday. As I mentioned in the previous post about Carnival, the very idea of it makes my Baptist-raised heart pound, but even if that’s true of you also, please break out of your mold and try it. It doesn’t have to be a dance of questionable moral value; it can be something as innocent as the hokey-pokey or line-dancing!
    • Kids’ Events. Lots of ideas can be found here.
    • Liturgy/Drama. A short liturgy is available here, at the end of the pdf linked above. It’s actually really cool and I highly recommend it. You can easily utilize it in any group setting or insert it into a dramatic performance.

KNIT AND CROCHET ACTIVITIES

The most appropriate symbol for this day is the number 50.

  • Knitting Pattern: “Numbers” by Frankie Brown (here). (These measure 4 inches length using DK [8 ply] or 3 inches length using Fingering [4 ply]. Since I recommend all these ornaments be less than 3 inches long, you should use Fingering.) (Note: knit only the 5 and 0. You may consider stitching them together. If you’re really ambitious, you might consider double-knitting and then stuffing them.)
  • Crochet Pattern: “Numbers 0-9” by CreativeCrochetWorkshop (here) (these measure 2 inches in length) or “The Moogly Crochet Numbers” by Tamara Kelly (here) (these measure 3.5 inches in length). (Note: crochet only the 5 and 0. You may consider stitching them together.)

 

じゃあまたね!

Footnote 1: Cock Throwing. This was a game wherein contestants paid to throw sticks and stones at tethered cocks. If the contestant hit and stunned the bird and the contestant could pick him up, the contestant would win him. It’s believed to come from Norse times when an English plan to massacre a Danish settlement was foiled by a cock’s crow. As a result, all cocks were punished. Theoretically, this game is also the base of bowls, battledore, and shuttlecock. Shuttlecock was also a popular game for Shrovetide.

Footnote 2: Shrove Tuesday Songs. You can sing any party song on Shrove Tuesday, but there are a few traditional folk songs meant especially for this day.

Pancake Day Song (see an adorable video of a little British girl singing the song here)

  • It’s Shrove Tuesday,
    Pancake Day has come!
    Time for some cooking,
    Time for having fun!
    We’ll make some pancakes,
    Lots for everyone.
    It’s Shrove Tuesday,
    Pancake Day has come!

The Pancake Song (lyrics and tune here)

  • Woman of the house and good family,
    Please may I have a pancake ?
    Mother is too poor to buy flour
    And Father too lazy to work.
    Please may I have a pancake ?
    My mouth is dry for want of a pancake.
    If there is no butter in the house
    Put a large spoonful of treacle,
    And if there is no treacle in the house
    Give a terribly large pancake.
    Terribly, terribly.

Shrove Tuesday, Ash Wednesday (alternate lyrics exist depending on region; the tune can be found here)

  • Shrove Tuesday, Ash Wednesday
    Poor Jack went to plow
    His wife made some pancakes
    And didn’t know how.
    She flipped them and tossed them,
    And made them so black
    She made them so awful,
    She poisoned poor Jack
  • Plow Monday, Shrove Tuesday
    When the boys went to plow
    My mother made some pancakes
    And she didn’t know how.
    She buttered them, she sugared them,
    She made them turn black.
    She made them so awful,
    She poisoned poor Jack.

Christian Traditions 009: Sexagesima Sunday

Von Trapp Follow-Along: Maria says nothing about Sexagesima Sunday.

8 February 2015WHEN IS IT?

Sexagesima Sunday, which in the middle of the three-Sunday Pre-Lent Season, is the second Sunday before Ash Wednesday. This year, that occurs on 8 February. Because Ash Wednesday is a moveable feast (it’s based on the date of Easter, which is based roughly on the Spring Equinox, and so Easter and, by extension, Ash Wednesday move to a different date every year), Sexagesima is also a moveable feast. The earliest it may occur is 25 January and the latest it can occur is 28 February or 29 February in a leap year.

sexagesimaWHAT IS IT?

Sexagesima Sunday is so named because it occurs within 60 days before Easter. Specifically, it occurs exactly 57 days before Easter while Septuagesima Sunday occurs 64 days before Easter. However, the following Sunday, Quinquagesima Sunday, occurs 50 days before Easter (if you include both Easter Sunday and Quinquagesima Sunday in the counting), hence the name Quinquagesima. It is believed that Sexagesima and Septuagesima are named more in relation to Quinquagesima than in relation to Easter itself.

Like Septagesima Sunday, Sexagesima Sunday has been observed since at least the 500s AD with the first written reference dated to 541 AD.

calendarLOOKING AHEAD

The next Sunday in the cycle is Quinquagesima Sunday, which falls on 15 February this year.

STANDARD ACTIVITIES

Unlike Septuagesima Sunday, Sexagesima Sunday does not have a special activity other than reading and prayer.

  • II Corinthians 11-12, Luke 8.
  • Pray the following prayer or use it to guide your own prayer.
    • “O LORD God, who sees that we do not put our trust in anything that we do: Mercifully grant that by Your power we may be defended against all adversity; through Jesus Christ our Lord.  Amen.”

KNIT AND CROCHET ACTIVITIES

The most appropriate symbol for this day is the number 60.

  • Knitting Pattern: “Numbers” by Frankie Brown (here). (These measure 4 inches length using DK [8 ply] or 3 inches length using Fingering [4 ply]. Since I recommend all these ornaments be less than 3 inches long, you should use Fingering.) (Note: knit only the 6 and 0. You may consider stitching them together. If you’re really ambitious, you might consider double-knitting and then stuffing them.)
  • Crochet Pattern: “Numbers 0-9” by CreativeCrochetWorkshop (here) (these measure 2 inches in length) or “The Moogly Crochet Numbers” by Tamara Kelly (here) (these measure 3.5 inches in length). (Note: crochet only the 6 and 0. You may consider stitching them together.)

じゃあまたね!

Christian Traditions 008: Candlemas or Feast of the Presentation of the Lord

Von Trapp Follow-Along: Maria writes several paragraphs about this period, under “CANDLEMAS.”

INTRODUCTION:

This event is known as Candlemas, or the Feast of the Presentation of the Lord, the Feast of the Meeting of the Lord, or the Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary, etc. In some Protestant churches, it’s also known as the Naming of Jesus, even though Jesus would actually have been named on the eighth day after birth, when He was circumcised. This is one of the oldest Christian celebrations, dating back to the 300s AD. Because this feast points back to Christmas, it is referred to as a “Christmas feast,” even though it occurs well outside of the Christmas Season (which, if you recall, ends 6 January or the first Sunday or Monday after 6 January, depending on which denomination you use as your reference). It is the last event commemorating anything related to Christmas.

whiteCOLOR

White. Although Ordinary Time’s liturgical color is green and Pre-Lent’s liturgical color is purple, either may be broken by a special color for a special occasion—in this case, a feast for which the liturgical color is white.

2 February 2015WHEN IS IT?

Before celebrating Jesus’ birth on December 25, Christians observed His birth, Epiphany (the arrival of the magi in Bethlehem), and His baptism all on January 6; and 40 days later, February 14, they celebrated His presentation in the temple and encounter with Simeon. Since at least the early 300s AD, Jesus’ birth was celebrated by the Western Church on December 25 because (as I’ll explain in more detail in a later post) we celebrate the Annunciation (the date on which Mary conceived Jesus) on March 25. Add nine months for the pregnancy to March 25, and you get December 25. (Again, more details will come in the post about the Annunciation.) Since we celebrate Jesus’ birth on December 25, we therefore celebrate Jesus’ presentation, the family’s encounter with Simeon, and Mary’s ritual purification in the temple 40 days later, on February 2. (In the Anglican Church, it may be celebrated on the Sunday between 28 January and 3 February.) Interestingly, ancient Roman women celebrated the goddess Ceres on February 1st, and so this may be an instance of genuine hijacking of a pagan holiday by the Christian church. On the other hand, it seems like an incredible coincidence that the pagan holiday so closely coincides with the purification date. In other words… the purification must occur 40 days after the birth, so it must occur on February 2… and if the Roman celebration of Ceres occurred on February 6 or even February 26, would we still call it a hijacking of the date or just a coincidence that they occurred so closely together on the calendar? (See Footnote 2.)

the encounterWHAT IS IT?

Jewish parents were to travel to the temple 40 days following the birth of a son in order to present the child (firstborn sons were sanctified to God and parents were to offer a sacrifice on his behalf) and for the mother to be purified from the ritual uncleanness of post-birth bleeding. In accordance with Jewish law, Joseph and Mary offered the sacrifice the poor were instructed to offer at such an occasion: a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons (Luke 2:24). While in the temple, the new parents with the infant Jesus were (kindly) accosted by two elderly people who were very attuned to God through continual prayer and fasting: Simeon and Anna. God had informed Simeon that he would not die until he had seen the Messiah. When he saw Jesus, he took the baby out of His parents’ arms and prayed that God would let him die because he had seen God’s salvation (Luke 2:28-32). Simeon blessed Joseph and Mary and then turned to Mary and made a prophecy of what Jesus would do and how it would affect her (Luke 2:34-35). After Simeon, a centenarian (see Footnote 1) prophetess named Anna saw the baby, openly praised God, and then went around telling everyone about the birth of the Messiah (Luke 2:38). This feast was first celebrated by the Eastern Church as “The Encounter” (referring to Simeon’s encounter with Jesus) as early as the 300s AD, but was accepted in the Western Church, specifically in Rome and Gaul (France), in the 500s AD. In other words, it originally commemorated only the encounter between Simeon and Jesus specifically, or Jesus’ presentation at the temple more generally. Originally, it was a minor celebration. However, in 541 AD, a plague swept through Constantinople and Emperor Justinian I ordered a period of fasting and prayer, to end with a great procession and prayer service on this feast. The plague ceased, and the feast was elevated in stature. In the Middle Ages (by the 600s to 700s AD), the celebration of Mary’s purification became more important (whereupon it became the first feast in honor of Mary) until eventually, this feast was celebrated only as the Feast of the Purification of Our Lady with little or no reference to Jesus’ presentation or encounter with Simeon. This changed in 1969 to its present form, where we commemorate both Jesus’ presentation and Mary’s purification. candlemasAs noted above, we celebrate Jesus’ birth on December 25 and so celebrate His presentation at the temple and Mary’s purification 40 days later, on February 2. As also noted above, ancient Roman women celebrated the goddess Ceres on February 1 and so some erroneously claim this event is based on a pagan celebration (see Footnote 2). However, even where it has a different basis, if you add a new holiday close to a now out-of-favor old holiday, it’s very likely certain traditions from the old holiday will be retained and transferred to the new holiday. The tradition retained in this case was firelight. Ancient Roman women celebrated Ceres by marching around town with torches and other lights. On February 2, the Catholic Church celebrates the purification of Mary and the Feast of the Presentation of the Lord by the light of many candles. Hence, “candle” + “mass” (Christian worship or communion) = “Candlemas.” The blessing and procession of many candles on this day is said to be representative of the fact that Christ is the light of the nations. In some places, Candlemas is celebrated by a procession of people carrying candles into the church from a gathering place outside the church, symbolizing the Lord’s entry into the Jerusalem Temple.

calendarLOOKING AHEAD

This is the last celebration of the liturgical year commemorating anything directly relating to Christmas. (Remember that the liturgical year begins with Advent, in November.) From this date forward, all events will point forward to Easter rather than back toward Christmas.

STANDARD ACTIVITIES

Probably in part because this is such an ancient feast, there are many traditional activities or observances as well as many modern activities based on more traditional ones.

  • (Traditional) Readings: Read the story of Jesus’ presentation with Simeon’s Canticle in Luke 2:22-40. You may also choose to read Malachi 3:1-4 (where Jesus’ presentation is believed to be prophesied) and Psalm 24:7-10 (a song about the King of Glory—Jesus—coming into the city).
  • (Traditional) Decorations: Put away nativity scenes and other Christmas décor. Because this feast is a Christmas feast, even though the Christmas tree comes down on Epiphany (6 January), the crèche (nativity scene) stays out until Candlemas. Traditionally, the crèche is packed away on this day. If any other Christmas decorations remain up, they are also taken down today.
  • (Traditional) Decorations: This day is celebrated with the lighting of many candles to symbolize how Christ came to be a light to the world. Celebrate by lighting many candles around the house or family room or small group meeting room (or use them in a Candlemas procession, outlined below). Alternatively, set a lit candle or several lit candles on the table at dinner. Alternatively, set nearby or hold lit candle(s) while reading Scripture and praying and even singing hymns in the evening.
  • (Traditional) Candlemas Procession: Have a family or small group Candlemas procession. Traditionally, churchgoers have a candlelit procession into the church on Candlemas, but families have observed family Candlemas processions for some time as well—in fact, it’s described by Maria Von Trapp! (I’ll note that the church is lit by hundreds of candles in the morning, but it seems both more scenic and more appropriate to have a family or small group Candlemas procession in the evening or at night.) Babies’ candles are placed on candlesticks on the mantel while everyone else carries their lit candles. The troupe marches around the house (indoors or outdoors) while the leader (in a family, the father) reads the Canticle of Simeon (Luke 2:29-32) and everyone recites the Antiphon after each verse. After the reading and recitation, you may choose to sing hymns while marching. The procession looks like this (L=Leader, A=All):
    • L: “Lord, now let Your servant depart in peace, according to Your Word…” (Luke 2:29)
    • A: “A Light to the revelation of the Gentiles: and the glory of Your people Israel.”
    • L: “For my eyes have seen Your salvation…” (Luke 2:30)
    • A: “A Light to the revelation of the Gentiles: and the glory of Your people Israel.”
    • L: “Which You have prepared before the face of all people…” (Luke 2:31)
    • A: “A Light to the revelation of the Gentiles: and the glory of Your people Israel.”
    • L: “A light to lighten the Gentiles, and a glory of Your people Israel.” (Luke 2:32)
    • A: “A Light to the revelation of the Gentiles: and the glory of Your people Israel.”
    • Hymns (see below for ideas)
  • (Traditional) Hymns: Traditionally, certain hymns are sung on Candlemas, both in church and in the home family Candlemas procession. Honestly, all the recommended hymns are thoroughly Catholic (Salve Regina; O Sanctissima; Hail Holy Queen, Enthroned Above, all venerating Mary). For non-Catholics observing this at home, I recommend the following. See Footnote 3 for the lyrics and links to the tunes.
    • (Kids) This Little Light of Mine
    • Turn Your Eyes Upon Jesus
    • Christ is the World’s Light
    • The Light of the World is Jesus
    • Let There Be Light
  • (Traditional) Blessing: Traditionally, special household candles called gromnice, which are lit and set in windows during storms to ward off more storms, may be blessed in a Catholic home by a Catholic priest. Nowadays, candles other than gromnice are blessed, as in this blessing, placed on the home altar, and lit during times of difficulty, danger, sickness, bad weather, etc. You may make a variation on that blessing to bless your own candles, or perhaps as an Evangelical version, since Evangelicals don’t believe in objects being imbued with mystical or spiritual power, bless your house that it would always be filled with light, both visible and spiritual.
  • (Traditional) Prayer: There are actually five traditional prayers said on Candlemas, which can be found here. However, they’re extremely Catholic. Although that’s not in itself a problem, this series is really about an Evangelical (me) learning and observing Christian traditions, but an Evangelical can’t really observe a tradition that is 100% Catholic for reasons I won’t get into now. So as you’ll see here and in many other places, I’ll be adapting many Catholic or Protestant traditions into something an Evangelical could also observe—for example, the heavily edited prayers below.
    • “Grant unto us, Lord Jesus, ever to follow the example of Your holy family. Christ Jesus, our most loving Redeemer, Who having come to enlighten the world with Your teaching and example, chose to pass the greater part of Your life in humility and subjection to Mary and Joseph in the poor home of Nazareth, thus sanctifying the Family that was to be an example for all Christian families, graciously receive our family as it dedicates and consecrates itself to You this day. Defend us, guard us and establish among us Your holy fear, true peace, and concord in Christian love: in order that, by conforming ourselves to the divine pattern of Your family, we may be able to attain to eternal happiness. Amen.”
    • “God, Heavenly Father, it was part of Your eternal decree that Your only-begotten Son, Jesus Christ, the Savior of the human race, should form a holy family with His mother, Mary, and His foster father, Joseph. In Nazareth, home life was sanctified, and a perfect example was given to every Christian family. We pray that You help us to fully comprehend and faithfully imitate the virtues of the Holy Family. Amen.” (Adapted from The Prayer Book.)

KNIT AND CROCHET ACTIVITIES

Knit or crochet a candle for Candlemas! Geez, that was an obvious one…

  • Knitting Pattern: “Birthday Cake Candle” by Toki Haus (here) OR “Advent Garland 2, Candle” by Frankie Brown (here) OR “Christmas Tree Candle” by Becky Kibblewhite (here). (Note: None of these patterns say how big the final product is, so I can’t vouch for them.)
  • Crochet Pattern: “Tiny Cake” by Amigurple (here). (Note: crochet only the candle, not the cake. With the cake, it measures 4 inches, so it should be the right size without the cake.)

じゃあまたね!

FOOTNOTES

Footnote 1: Anna as a Centenarian (a person at least 100 years old). The Bible doesn’t tell us how old Anna was when she met the infant Jesus in the temple. However, it says she had been married for 7 years and then a widow for 84 years. If she was at least 13 when she married, she would be at least 104 years old at the time. It seems to me that a lot of people like to say Mary was probably 13 to 15 years old when engaged to Joseph and when Gabriel came to her to announce the coming birth of Jesus because 13 is essentially the legal age of adulthood in Judaism and 13 is close to the average age of menarche (when a girl has her first period) today. However, there’s quite a bit of evidence that menarche occurs much earlier today than it did in the past. For example, the Netherlands is the country that has tracked the age of menarche for the longest period of time—back into the 1830s! In the Netherlands, the average age of menarche in 1830 was 17 years. Germany reported similar data: the average age of menarche in the 1850s was 16.6 years. Menarche tends to occur later in malnourished girls and earlier in well-nourished and overweight girls. So it’s possible Mary (and, therefore, Anna), living in a time when not everyone was as well-nourished as today, experienced menarche closer to the 1830s standard of 17 years. In that case, Anna would have been at least 111 years old when meeting the Lord. Anyway… 🙂

Footnote 2: Pagan Origins of Candlemas. A group of Modern Pagans believes Candlemas is a Christianization of a Gaelic festival celebrated around the same time of year, called Imbolc or St. Brigid’s Day. Brigid was associated with flames, among other things, which is perhaps where they got the idea. However, the feast of Candlemas was celebrated long before any serious attempt by Christians to expand into non-Roman countries (and therefore long before any significant contact between Christians and Gaelic pagans), so this idea is uneducated at best. If based on any pagan celebrations, Candlemas would likely have been based on a Roman one, such as the fiery celebration of the goddess Ceres, as described above. However, as also described above, even that might be stretching it a bit since it was the Eastern Church that first started celebrating it, since it originally had nothing to do with Mary, and since the date is directly related to the date of Christmas (which itself is related to the date of the Annunciation, which is related to the date of Easter). In order to have intentionally hijacked the date, Christians would have to have specifically engineered the date of Easter so that it would change the date of the Annunciation, so that it would change the date of Christmas, so that it would change the date of Candlemas… a very obviously unlikely scenario, especially given Easter’s connection to the Jewish Passover, which is steeped in a history several thousand years old. That being said, it’s certainly possible that Christians adopted the use of candles in the Feast of the Presentation from the Roman goddess Ceres’ celebrations. In fact, that’s what Pope Innocent XII (1615-1700) believed. It’s also possible that the pagan celebration Lupercalia, observed 13-15 February and concerned with the ritual purification of women, is the source of this feast’s addition of Mary’s purification to the commemoration, though several noted Catholic scholars vehemently reject that idea.

Footnote 3: Hymns for Evangelicals and Protestants. There is one kids’ song; the rest are traditional hymns. I’m not familiar with modern worship music, so let me know if you think one should be added. The themes should focus on the light of Christ. For Kids: This Little Light of Mine (by Harry Dixon Loes, 1920) (You can download a recording of the song here: http://www.hymnary.org/text/this_little_light_of_mine_im_gonna_let)

  • (1) This little light of mine, I’m gonna let it shine, This little light of mine, I’m gonna let it shine, Let it shine, let it shine, let it shine.
  • (2) Hide it under a basket? No! I’m gonna let it shine. Hide it under a basket? No! I’m gonna let it shine, Let it shine, let it shine, let it shine.
  • (3) Don’t let anyone (blow) it out. I’m gonna let it shine. Don’t let anyone (blow) it out. I’m gonna let it shine, Let it shine, let it shine, let it shine.
  • (4) Share my light with others! Yes! I’m gonna let it shine. Share my light with others! Yes! I’m gonna let it shine, Let it shine, let it shine, let it shine.

Turn Your Eyes Upon Jesus (by Helen H. Lemmel, 1922) (The tune plays on a loop here: https://www.hymnal.net/en/hymn/h/645. You can download a free MIDI file of the tune and view/save/print the sheet music here: http://www.hymnary.org/text/o_soul_are_you_weary_and_troubled)

  • (1) O soul, are you weary and troubled? No light in the darkness you see? There’s light for a look at the Savior, And life more abundant and free!
  • Chorus:
    • Turn your eyes upon Jesus, Look full in His wonderful face, And the things of earth will grow strangely dim, In the light of His glory and grace.
  • (2) Through death into life everlasting He passed, and we follow Him there; O’er us sin no more hath dominion— For more than conqu’rors we are!
  • (3) His Word shall not fail you—He promised; Believe Him, and all will be well: Then go to a world that is dying, His perfect salvation to tell!

Christ is the World’s Light (by Fred P. Green, 1969) (You can download a free MIDI file of the tune and view/save/print the sheet music here: http://www.hymnary.org/text/christ_is_the_worlds_light_christ_and_no)

  • (1) Christ is the world’s light, Christ and none other; born in our darkness, He became our Brother. If we have seen Him we have seen the Father: Glory to God on high!
  • (2) Christ is the world’s peace, Christ and none other; no one can serve Him and despise another. Who else unites us, one in God the Father? Glory to God on high!
  • (3) Christ is the world’s life, Christ and none other; sold once for silver, murdered here, our Brother; He, Who redeems us, reigns with God the Father: Glory to God on high!
  • (4) Give God the glory, God and none other; give God the glory, Spirit, Son, and Father; give God the glory, God with us, my Brother: Glory to God on high!

The Light of the World is Jesus (by Philip P. Bliss, 1875) (You can download a free MIDI file of the tune and view/save/print the sheet music here: http://www.hymnary.org/text/the_whole_world_was_lost_in_the_darkness)

  • (1) The whole world was lost in the darkness of sin, The Light of the world is Jesus! Like sunshine at noonday, His glory shone in; The Light of the world is Jesus!
  • Chorus:
    • Come to the light, ’tis shining for thee; Sweetly the light has dawned upon me; Once I was blind, but now I can see: The Light of the world is Jesus!
  • (2) No darkness have we who in Jesus abide; The Light of the world is Jesus! We walk in the light when we follow our Guide! The Light of the world is Jesus!
  • (3) Ye dwellers in darkness with sin-blinded eyes, The Light of the world is Jesus! Go, wash at His bidding, and light will arise; The Light of the world is Jesus!
  • (4) No need of the sunlight in Heaven we’re told; The Light of the world is Jesus! The Lamb is the Light in the city of gold, The Light of the world is Jesus!

Let There Be Light (by John Marriott, 1816) (You can download a free MIDI file of the tune and view/save/print the sheet music here: http://www.hymnary.org/text/thou_whose_almighty_word)

  • (1) God, Whose almighty word, chaos and darkness heard, and took their flight: hear us, we humbly pray, and where the gospel-day sheds not its glorious ray, let there be light.
  • (2) Savior, Who came to bring on Your redeeming wing healing and sight, health to the sick in mind, sight to the inly blind: now to all humankind let there be light.
  • (3) Spirit of truth and love, life-giving, holy dove, speed forth your flight: move o’er the water’s face, bearing the lamp of grace and in earth’s darkest place let there be light.
  • (4) Blessed and holy Three, glorious Trinity, Wisdom, Love, Might, boundless as ocean’s tide rolling in fullest pride through the world far and wide, let there be light.

 

EDITS

4 Feb 2015: Page edited to add paragraph breaks to the Footnotes that were accidentally eliminated in the published version.

Christian Traditions 007: Septuagesima Sunday

Von Trapp Follow-Along: Maria makes little mention of Septuagesima Sunday specifically, but discusses the entire period of the Pre-Lent Season and Carnival under “CARNIVAL” and “PRE-LENT.” (See her book.)

INTRODUCTION:

As discussed in the previous post, Septuagesima Sunday marks the beginning of the Pre-Lent Season and Carnival.

1 February 2015WHEN IS IT?

Septuagesima Sunday occurs on the third Sunday before Ash Wednesday, or about two and a half weeks before Ash Wednesday. This year, it will occur on 1 February.

Because Ash Wednesday is a moveable feast, so is Septuagesima Sunday. The earliest date Septuagesima may occur is 18 January and the latest is 22 February. (Coincidentally, those are the dates of the two Catholic Feasts of the Chair of St. Peter. The first, on 18 January, is celebrated by some Protestant churches as the Feast of the Confession of Peter. The second, on 22 February, is still commemorated by some Catholic churches as the Feast of the Chair of St. Peter.)

septuagesimaWHAT IS IT?

Septuagesima Sunday is so named because it occurs within 70 days before Easter. Specifically, it occurs exactly 64 days before Easter while the next Sunday, Sexagesima, occurs 57 days before Easter. However, the following Sunday, Quinquagesima, occurs 50 days before Easter (if you include both Easter Sunday and Quinquagesima Sunday in the counting), hence the name Quinquagesima. It is believed that Sexagesima and Septuagesima are named more in relation to Quinquagesima than in relation to Easter itself.

It is the first day of the Pre-Lent Season. A liturgist named Amalarius of Metz (c. 780-850) wrote that “Septuagesima” refers to a period of 70 days which include the nine weeks before Easter plus Easter Week, which represents the 70-year captivity of Jews in Babylon, as told in Ezra, Daniel, and other Old Testament books. Septuagesima Sunday has been observed since at least the 500s AD. For the most part, Septuagesima Sunday and Septuagesima Week are omitted from post-1969 Catholic usage and any traditions reserved for this day or this week are moved to Ash Wednesday. However, some Catholic groups do not follow the 1969 standards and at least one other—the Polish National Catholic Church—has reinstated it. Some Protestants adopted the same 1969 Catholic change in full or with variations while other Protestants did not adopt the 1969 Catholic changes and have continued to observe traditional Septuagesima Sunday practices. The Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic churches also retain the Pre-Lent Season but with 22 days’ length rather than 17.

Traditionally, on Septuagesima Sunday, the “Alleluia” (or “Hallelujah”) is laid aside or “buried” and not taken out again until Easter Sunday. Alleluia is a Hebrew word similar to our “Hoorah!”—a word of triumph chanted to hail a victor after a battle, and the chant John the Beloved heard in heaven during his vision of the Apocalypse after the Beast (popularly known now as “the Antichrist”), Satan, and all the forces of evil have been overthrown (Revelation 19:1-7). Ever since the Medieval Times, children would carry a wooden tablet on which was engraved the word “Alleluia” in a long procession into the church, lay it at the altar, and cover it with a purple cloth. Then, on Easter, the priest would chant a threefold Alleluia in triumphal tones. The Lent and, to some degree, Pre-Lent Seasons remind us that we are sinful and dead in our sins (Romans 5:11-12, 18-21) whereas the Easter Triduum (Good Friday through Easter Sunday) reminds us that as Christ was crucified and resurrected, so are we crucified in order to be dead to sin and resurrected to life in Christ (Romans 6:3-11). Therefore, because Lent is a time to remember our sad state prior to Christ, and Pre-Lent leads up to and mentally prepares us for Lent, Alleluia is buried in Pre-Lent and no longer spoken or sung until Christ’s triumphal victory over death on Easter Sunday. During Pre-Lent, people begin formulating their Lent resolutions (or parents help their children to do so).

One planning to complete a 40-day Lenten fast without including Thursdays, Saturdays, and Sundays would begin on Septuagesima Sunday.

calendarLOOKING AHEAD

The second Sunday before Ash Wednesday, Sexagesima Sunday, occurs 8 February this year and the first Sunday before Ash Wednesday, Quinquagesima Sunday, occurs 15 February this year. There are only three Sundays in the Pre-Lent Season.

STANDARD ACTIVITIES

There are a few traditional activities for this day.

  • (Traditional) Readings. Because this season prepares us for Lent, which reminds us of our sinful nature and need of a Savior, it is traditional to read the account of the Fall of Man from Creation through Cain and Abel on Septuagesima Sunday or during this week.
    • Genesis 1-4
    • I Corinthians 9
    • Matthew 20:1-16
  • (Traditional) Alleluia Burial. As described above, the Alleluia is traditionally buried on this day and no more alleluias are sung until Easter Sunday. You may perform a variation of this event by purchasing a decorative item that reads “Alleluia” or “Hallelujah” or creating your own. The simplest version might involve simply writing the word on a sheet of paper or cardboard. Place it in a special place (I think most of us don’t have home altars, which is where Maria Von Trapp describes things like this being placed, but perhaps you have a fireplace mantel or some other place where it would be safely undisturbed for 70 days) and cover it with a violet or purple cloth. If you have children, you may have the children take turns marching it around the house while singing hymns incorporating the word “Alleluia” or “Hallelujah.”
  • (Traditional) Prayer. Pray the following or use it to guide your own prayer.
    • “O LORD, we ask that You hear the prayers of Your people; that we, who are justly punished for our offenses, may be mercifully delivered by Your goodness, for the glory of Your Name; through Jesus Christ our Saviour, Who lives and reigns with You and the Holy Ghost, ever one God, world without end.  Amen.”

KNIT AND CROCHET ACTIVITIES

The most appropriate symbol for this day is the number 70.

  • Knitting Pattern: “Numbers” by Frankie Brown (here). (These measure 4 inches length using DK [8 ply] or 3 inches length using Fingering [4 ply]. Since I recommend all these ornaments be less than 3 inches long, you should use Fingering.) (Note: knit only the 7 and 0. You may consider stitching them together. If you’re really ambitious, you might consider double-knitting and then stuffing them.)
  • Crochet Pattern: “Numbers 0-9” by CreativeCrochetWorkshop (here) (these measure 2 inches in length) or “The Moogly Crochet Numbers” by Tamara Kelly (here) (these measure 3.5 inches in length). (Note: crochet only the 7 and 0. You may consider stitching them together.)

じゃあまたね!

Christian Traditions 006: Pre-Lent Season and Carnival

Von Trapp Follow-Along: As mentioned in the last post, Maria describes Candlemas (2 February) in beautiful detail under “CANDLEMAS.” She also says quite a bit about the period between Epiphany (6 January) and Ash Wednesday (which is 18 February this year) under “CARNIVAL” and the Pre-Lent Season under “PRE-LENT.”

INTRODUCTION

Pre-Lent Season and Carnival are a time of preparation for Lent. Because Lent is a time of fasting and abstinence, Pre-Lent and Carnival are a time of feasting and celebration.

violet purpleCOLOR

Violet or Purple. (As explained below, Pre-Lent coincides with Ordinary Time for the month of February this year. Pre-Lent supersedes Ordinary Time, so instead of Ordinary Time’s green, the colors are Pre-Lent’s violet or purple.) This color symbolizes penitence and preparation.

chi rho christosSYMBOL

There doesn’t seem to be a symbol for the Pre-Lent Season or Carnival, so the XP symbol of Ordinary Time would continue (see my previous post about Ordinary Time).

 

1-17 February 2015WHEN IS IT?

Pre-Lent Season starts on Septuagesima Sunday, which lasts 17 days, begins three Sundays before Ash Wednesday, and ends the day before Ash Wednesday (“Fat Tuesday” or “Mardi Gras”). The earliest it can begin is January 18 and the latest it can end is March 9. This year, it will be 1 February through 17 February. Because it begins on Septuagesima Sunday, the season may also be known as Septuagesima.

Carnival may nearly match Ordinary Time (wherein it stretches from Epiphany until Ash Wednesday, so 6 January through 17 February this year), or perfectly match the Pre-Lent Season (as described above, so 1 February through 17 February this year). The most traditional observance of Carnival exactly matched the Pre-Lent Season. For the purposes of my observances—and for bloggy reasons—I consider Carnival to exactly match Pre-Lent Season.

septuagesimaWHAT IS IT?

Carnival. During Lent, as Maria Von Trapp explains, “good Christians are not allowed to attend public dances and are not supposed to have a big festive wedding celebration.” (See CARNIVAL in her book.) There are actually two such times: Advent (from late November or early December to Christmas) and Lent (between Ash Wednesday and Easter Sunday). To make up for these two times, the time from Epiphany to Ash Wednesday (Ordinary Time Part 1 and Pre-Lent) is dedicated to dancing and feasting of any kind. In Latin, the saying “Meat—farewell!” (“Carne—Vale!”) became “Carnival.” Carnival begins on Epiphany (6 January) and ends at midnight on the day before Ash Wednesday (“Fat Tuesday” or “Mardi Gras,” which is 17 February this year). Carnival is seen as necessary for the individual, families, and communities, because it’s a time during which you can let off steam and have a good time. In the same way that children come home to family get-togethers on Thanksgiving, they do the same during Carnival. “Parish groups” (which I translate into Evangelical language as “small group” or “Bible Study group” or “Sunday School class”) have small parties every Sunday during Carnival. The best events—be they family evenings or small group parties—have a special theme for which people must dress and speak or even provide appropriate food and games. Dancing is a must, which I admit makes my Baptist-born heart skip a beat. Games are important as well. Of course, Carnival is a time for dancing together, playing together, and singing together! So songs are a must. Food is important, too. Historically, the closer Ash Wednesday came, the more housewives worked to clear out the forbidden foods, which, of course, they did by cooking them. Because Lent and Advent are times during which meat, milk, cream, butter, cheese, and everything else bad for your arteries was forbidden and therefore excluded from meals, Carnival is a time when most of your food should be deep-fried and dripping in gravy! Cheesy, creamy, buttery goodness is a must! Because of this rush to clear the kitchen and pantry of forbidden items, the food alone makes the last days before Ash Wednesday the climax of Carnival. On “Fat Tuesday” (or “Mardi Gras”), the day before Ash Wednesday, people traditionally gathered together in large parties to experience the forbidden dances, games, songs, and foods one more time. Maria Von Trapp explains,

This should be a big celebration, if possible of the whole parish together, or a circle of friends, and everything which one did during the previous weeks should be done just once more. “Once more this dance!” “Once more this song!” “Once more this game!”–until twelve o’clock sharp. When the clock strikes twelve, in the middle of the dance, according to the good old tradition, one should stop and the whole group should kneel down and say one “Our Father” together and then, rising up, say, “I wish you a blessed season of Lent” and go home. (See CARNIVAL in her book.)

Pre-Lent. Pre-Lent is also known as Septuagesima (since it begins on Septuagesima Sunday) or Shrovetide (since it ends on Shrove Tuesday). As explained earlier, Pre-Lent coincides with all of February’s Ordinary Time this year. Pre-Lent is primarily a lead-up to Lent and conversion from Carnival to Lent, a time wherein Christians prepare themselves for the Lent Season. (See “PRE-LENT” in Maria Von Trapp’s book.) It is a time during which parents introduce their children to prayer, fasting, and charitable giving, which will be practiced during Lent. It is also during this time that any preparations necessary for Lent are completed. For example, Lenten resolutions may be formulated at this time. It developed in the 500s AD as a time during which people prayed for God’s protection and defense from war, pestilence, and famine.

On the first day of the Pre-Lent Season, Septuagesima Sunday, the “Alleluia” (or “Hallelujah”) is laid aside or “buried” and not taken out again until Easter Sunday. Alleluia is a Hebrew word similar to our “Hoorah!”—a word of triumph chanted to hail a victor after a battle, and the chant John the Beloved heard in heaven during his vision of the Apocalypse after the Beast (popularly known now as “the Antichrist”), Satan, and all the forces of evil have been overthrown (Revelation 19:1-7). Ever since the Medieval Times, children would carry a wooden tablet on which was engraved the word “Alleluia” in a long procession into the church, lay it at the altar, and cover it with a purple cloth. Then, on Easter, the priest would chant a threefold Alleluia in triumphal tones. The Lent and, to some degree, Pre-Lent Seasons remind us that we are sinful and dead in our sins (Romans 5:11-12, 18-21) whereas the Easter Triduum (Good Friday through Easter Sunday) reminds us that as Christ was crucified and resurrected, so are we crucified in order to be dead to sin and resurrected to life in Christ (Romans 6:3-11). Therefore, because Lent is a time to remember our sad state prior to Christ, and Pre-Lent leads up to and mentally prepares us for Lent, Alleluia is buried in Pre-Lent and no longer spoken or sung until Christ’s triumphal victory over death on Easter Sunday. During Pre-Lent, people begin formulating their Lent resolutions (or parents help their children to do so).

calendarLOOKING AHEAD

As discussed above, Pre-Lent prepares us for Lent, which begins Ash Wednesday on 18 February this year.

CALENDAR OF EVENTS

The Pre-Lent Season and Carnival will encompass the following events this year:

  • 1-17: Ordinary Time, cont., and Pre-Lent Season/Carnival
  • 1: Septuagesima Sunday (first day of Pre-Lent Season/Carnival)
  • 2: Candlemas (a.k.a., Feast of the Presentation of the Lord)
  • 6: Feast of Saint Paul Miki and Companions (JAPAN ONLY)
  • 8: Sexagesima Sunday
  • 14: Valentine’s Day
  • 15: Quinquagesima Sunday or Shrove Sunday
  • 17: Shrove Tuesday (a.k.a. Fat Tuesday or Mardi Gras; last day of Pre-Lent Season/Carnival)

STANDARD ACTIVITIES

Further activities for each event that falls during this season will be presented in the appropriate posts.

Ordinary Time

  • (Traditional) Readings. Recall that Ordinary Time also extends into the Pre-Lent Season, ending with Shrove Tuesday. Continue the Ordinary Time daily readings as outlined in the first post on this series. You can find the Sunday readings here (recall that we are in a B year) and weekday and Saturday readings here (recall that we are in a I year), or you can find them published daily on my Facebook page (facebook.com/Schaabling). The first Sunday of the month, 1 February, starts Week 4 of Ordinary Time.

Carnival

  • (Traditional) Dance. For family celebrations, it’s suggested that you learn your family heritage’s folk dances. For example, my husband’s family is primarily German and mine primarily French and Swedish, so we would learn German, French, and Swedish folk dances.
  • (Traditional) Play Games. For family celebrations, it’s recommended that you learn a new game—by asking among acquaintances or picking up a book, etc.—and add it to your family repertoire every week of Carnival.
  • (Traditional) Sing Songs. For family celebrations, try learning traditional folk songs of your heritage. Although I don’t speak German, French, or Swedish, there are plenty of American folk songs I don’t know—honestly, I don’t even know Yankee Doodle Dandy! The recommendation is to learn and thereby add a new song to your family repertoire every week of Carnival.
  • (Traditional) Food. As explained above, this is a time for eating everything that is forbidden during Lent: eggs, milk and cream and their derivatives (cheese, butter, etc.), and meat. Yum! I made homemade donuts from Pioneer Woman’s recipe and chicken tetrazzini. Because pancakes require milk, eggs, and butter, which have to be finished off before Ash Wednesday, many people around the world would eat lots of pancakes during Carnival.
  • (Traditional) Party! Get together with your church group or other families on Shrove Tuesday (Mardi Gras, 17 February this year) and party until midnight!

Pre-Lent

  • (Traditional) Resolutions. Formulate your Lent resolutions—have them written before Ash Wednesday. Lent resolutions should not use a negative approach (“I won’t do this or that”) but a positive approach (Maria Von Trapp’s examples are: “I will use these three books…” “I will use the time I save by abstaining from television for this and this…” “I will use the money I save by not going to the movies for alms given to…”)

KNIT AND CROCHET ACTIVITIES

There are no knit or crochet activities for this period as a whole, the same as there were none for Ordinary Time as a whole. Activities for each event will be presented in the appropriate posts.

 

じゃあまたね!